Spring/Summer 2005 Issue 4
In This Issue
Metals and Money
Investigation of White Layers Formed in Conventional and Cryogenic Hard Turning of Steels
Supply Systems That Reduce Costs
Win World-Class Best Practice Training
Find Answers, Help Others in Online Atmospheres Forum
Ask the Expert
Where to Find Us
Meet This Quarter's Metal Head: Zbigniew Zurecki
Useful Web Links
Overcoming barriers to performance is how groups become teams.
—Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith
You can request more information or any of the documents referenced in this issue by calling us at
Accurate forecasting and planning stems from gauging the movement and trends of key industry indices. Air Products' economists have compiled these graphs to illustrate three-year trends for utility and metals pricing as well as industrial production. We'll continue to keep you updated once a quarter.
Industrial Production Indexes
Utility Pricing Metrics
Key Metals Prices
Although hard turning of steels has become an accepted industrial practice,
reducing the extent of grinding, many surface integrity aspects of hard turning
require clarification. The striking result of hard turning is the tendency for
forming white (non-etching) and dark (overtempered) layers at the machined
surface. White layers are often associated with residual tensile stresses leading
to reduced fatigue strength and poor wear resistance. It has been reported
that certain steel compositions, machining conditions and tools enhance
white layers, but no consensus was reached on the nature of white layer
and the role of environmental factors. Air Products conducted
a study to examine the impact of cryogenic liquid nitrogen spray cooling,
tool and work materials, as well as machining speed on white layer
formation. Results were evaluated using XRD, SEM, EDS, AES,
residual stress measurement and microhardness profiling. We
concluded that white layers are a purely thermomechanical phenomenon
involving dissolution of low-alloy carbides into austenitic matrix, and
catastrophic flow of that 1-phase material, resulting in its nano-scale
refinement. The depth and extent of the refinement are controlled by
cooling, with the cryogenic nitrogen reducing white layer thickness, loss
of hardness, and improving residual stress distribution.
Competitive pressures have everyone looking for ways to advance.
Air Products' PRISM® Nitrogen Generation System can potentially help
you achieve 20%–40% cost savings as compared to truck-delivered nitrogen.
To enter our Head of the Class contest for a chance to win four days of
world-class training in metals processing best practices at the ASM campus
in Ohio, go to www.metalsassessment.com.
All you have to do is spend ten minutes answering questions about your metals processing operation.
The contest and assessment are a collaboration between Air Products and ASM International-two leaders providing knowledge and innovative solutions to the metals processing industry.
Log on today—you have nothing to lose and lots to gain.
Check out the new Atmospheres
Forum, accessed through ASM International's website. The forum's
dedicated to answering your questions and creating virtual discussions
around the use of gases in material processing including topics such
as gas sensors, monitors and control, gas properties and handling issues,
atmosphere selection, vacuum processing, diffusion treatments and
Principal Industry Engineer
Do you need to weld titanium in a glovebox? What are some of the gas considerations?
Our representatives will be at the following trade shows. We hope to see you there to discuss your metals processing needs.
Zbig Zurecki could very well be the last listing in many phone books.
But with some 70 international patent filings and 25 publications, he's
probably the first person you'd look up for research about industrial gas applications.
You can request more information or any of the documents referenced
in this issue by calling us at